Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empircal validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5), 410-421. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.60.5.410.

Positive psychology has flourished in the last 5 years. The authors review recent developments in the field, including books, meetings, courses, and conferences. They also discuss the newly created classification of character strengths and virtues, a positive complement to the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (e. g., American Psychiatric Association, 1994), and present some cross-cultural findings that suggest a surprising ubiquity of strengths and virtues. Finally, the authors focus on psychological interventions that increase individual happiness. In a 6-group, random-assignment, placebo-controlled Internet study, the authors tested 5 purported happiness interventions and 1 plausible control exercise. They found that 3 of the interventions lastingly increased happiness and decreased depressive symptoms. Positive interventions can supplement traditional interventions that relieve suffering and may someday be the practical legacy of positive psychology.


Mills, J. M., Fleck, R. C., & Kozikowski, A. (2013). Positive psychology at work: A conceptual review, state-of-practice assessment, and a look ahead. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 8(2), 153-164.

Using Conservation of Resources (COR) and congruence theories as the theoretical underpinnings, the present study develops and tests a research model that investigates the impact of psychological capital (PsyCap) on work–family conflict, family–work conflict, and turnover and absence intentions. The model also examines the effects of two directions of conflict on these employee outcomes. Self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience are the components representing PsyCap. Based on data obtained from frontline hotel employees with a time lag of two weeks in three waves in Romania, the results suggest that PsyCap mitigates work–family conflict, family–work conflict, and turnover and absence intentions. The results further suggest that PsyCap influences the aforesaid employee outcomes indirectly through family–work conflict. However, work–family conflict has no bearing on these outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed in the study



•                Absence intentions;

•                Family–work conflict;

•                Hotel employees;

•                Psychological capital;

•                Romania;

•                Turnover intentions;

•                Work–family conflict


Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5-14. doi: 10.1037//0003-066x.55.1.5.

A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility, and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self-regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish